Eight International Scientific Conference Dishonesty or misconduct in the academic realm covers plagiarism, fabrication, deception, cheating, bribery, sabotage, professorial misconduct and impersonation. Whisper Campaign is another misconduct that is employed to spread rumors about someone in order to hurt that person's reputation or the systematic dissemination by word of mouth of derogatory rumors or charges especially against a candidate for public office.
This paper presents how whisper campaigns run in the academic world with the help of the experiences the author himself had. In other words, this paper exhibits the process and stages of experimental learning of an adult academician who has been exposed to a whisper campaign which leads to a model of learning under adult learning: The two and a half learning model.
Zagreb : Školska knjiga, monografija. Priante, Monica; Slišković, Slavko. Zagreb : Kršćanska sadašnjost, monografija.
In this model, two and half colleagues design and start a whisper campaign that covers five stages: targeting, gossip and rumors, slanders, complaining and finally enlightenment stages.
Introduction Academic dishonesty has been documented in every type of educational setting from elementary school to graduate level all over the world. This is not a recent event as this type of dishonesty has been met with varying degrees of approbation throughout history. Dishonesty or misconduct in the academic realm is generally a kind of cheating or deceiving related with the academic activities.
It covers plagiarism, fabrication, deception, cheating, bribery, sabotage, Professorial misconduct and Impersonation. Plagiarism pilot projekt u 2022. hypertension the adoption or reproduction of original creations of another author without acknowledgment.
Fabrication is related with the falsification of data, information, or citations. Deception covers providing false information to an instructor by giving a false excuse for missing a deadline or falsely claiming to have submitted work.
Cheating is related with the attempts to obtain assistance without due acknowledgment. Bribery or paid services covers giving assignment answers or test answers in return for money. Sabotage is related with the attempts to prevent others pilot projekt u 2022. hypertension completing their work by cutting pages out of library books or willfully disrupting the experiments of others, etc.
Finally, impersonation means to assume a student's identity with intent to provide an advantage for the student. Whisper Campaign is another misconduct that has a history in parallel with the history of human being.
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It can be defined as an effort to spread rumors about someone in order to hurt that person's reputation or the systematic dissemination by word of mouth of derogatory rumors or charges especially against a candidate for public office.
A person is supposed to be the target of a whispering campaign started by his or her rivals in politics, academia, business etc. Whisper Campaign covers gossip, slander and complaining. Anderson states that early religious texts stress the importance of the Control of the Tongue and of all of the sins that these texts describe, those that are mentioned the most frequently are those relating to the need to control veroshpiron liječenju hipertenzije tongue: gossip, slander, complaining, od injekcije za liječenje hipertenzije idle talk.
In the business or academic world, Whisper Campaign is employed as a method of persuasion in which damaging rumors or innuendo are spread about the target while the source of the rumors seeks to avoid being detected while spreading them.
It is a Black propaganda. It can be used in politics where a political campaign might distribute anonymous flyers attacking the other candidates.
Considering the advances in communication technology, it is clear that the speed and anonymity of communication by modern technologies like the Internet has increased, and thus, whisper campaigns are able to affect public awareness more deeply.
There have been Whisper Campaigns regarding alcohol and tobacco companies to promote their products as there have been blogs, forums etc. Whisper campaigns are generally used in political elections as a method of shaping the discussion. The best known whisper campaign is known to be in the United States based on a conflict in between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson for the presidential election. In that whisper campaign, Adams' supporters accused Jefferson of having robbed a widow and her children of a trust fund and of having fathered numerous mulatto children by his own slave women.
Again, U. President G. Pilot projekt u 2022. hypertension was the target of a whisper campaign in and in that campaign Republicans claimed that Cleveland had fathered an illegitimate child while he was still Governor of New York. Presently, in the business world or in the financial market, arteriální hypertenze v těhotenství assertions and false rumors can be especially potent and undeniably pilot projekt u 2022.
hypertension as they lead to speculation and decision making in the financial attempts and enterprises. Especially with the emergence of the Internet and other new ICT, the spread of misinformation is faster.
Thus, the managers in the business world, the leaders in the political world and the rectors or deans in the academic world should have a better a better understanding of the underlying factors that give rise to rumors and they should develop the most effective strategies in order to deal with them properly. The aim of the paper This paper presents how whisper campaigns run in the academic world with the help of the experiences the author himself had. In other words, this paper exhibits the process and stages of experimental learning of an adult academician who has been exposed to a whisper campaign by his two and half colleagues as the designers and whisperers of gossip, slander and complaining processes.
As a result, the paper aims to form a model of experiential learning in connection with adult learning and transformational learning. Experiential learning Experiential learning theory or experience based learning lijekovi za liječenje hipertenzije fotografiju stresses experience as a central point in human learning and development.
Therefore, experiential learning is regarded as a holistic theory that defines learning as the major process of human adaptation involving the whole person.
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In this respect, experiential learning theory can be employed both in the formal education classroom and in all arenas of life as well. In other words, the process of learning from experience is present in human activity everywhere all the time and it operates at all levels of human society from the individual to the group, organizations and to society as a whole.
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According to Kolb,Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Effective learning is seen when a person progresses through a cycle of four stages: 1 having a concrete experience followed by 2 observation of and reflection on that experience which leads to 3 the formation of abstract concepts analysis and generalizations conclusions which are then 4 used to test hypothesis in future situations, resulting in new experiences.
Kolb explains that different people naturally prefer a certain single different learning style and various factors influence a person's preferred style like social environment, educational experiences, or the basic cognitive structure of the individual McLeod, Some other educators have determined that most adults, adolescents, and children learn best by experiencing a blend of activities that promote the three learning domains: cognitive, affective, and behavioral.
It is remarkable that the common statement in these approaches is to learn best by experiencing.
Adult learning It is generally accepted by educators that most adults, adolescents, and children learn best by experiencing a blend of activities that promote the three learning domains: cognitive, affective, and behavioral.
In addition, there is no single theory of learning that can be applied to all adults. There have been various models, sets of assumptions and principles, theories, and explanations on adult learning. As far as adult learning is concerned, there are three subtitles under it: andragogy, self-directed learning, and transformational learning.
Malcolm S. Knowles is known to be the pioneer of adult learning in education as he used the term Andragogy as synonymous to the adult education. Knowles contributed many great works to the field of adult education and he is considered the "Father of Andragogy. He also believed that his role in adult education was not one of being a "teacher," but rather one of being a "facilitator of learning. InKnowles made four assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners andragogy that are pilot projekt u 2022.
hypertension from the assumptions about child learners pedagogy. InKnowles added the fifth assumption. He argued that teaching and learning is a fundamentally different process with adults than it is with children. Thus, we need to create a climate conducive to learning ever mindful of the above traits of adult learners. Our assumption should be that the adult learner will actively participate in an informed and intentional pilot projekt u 2022.
hypertension in their educational process. Andragogy focuses on special needs of adult learners. Knowles identified five assumptions about adult learning: 1 need to know, 2 self-concept, 3 prior experience, 4 readiness to learn, and 5 learning orientation. The five assumptions by Knowles are as follows: - The need to know: adult learners need to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it. These experiences are however imbued with bias and presupposition.
Despite the fact that Knowles stated that students should be self-directed learners, self-directed learning is not a new concept. In fact, much has been written about it. However, it is a notion that has a variety of interpretations and applications. When discussing "self-directed learning," both the learners and the teachers have to be aware that this is a completely different process than what is considered "normal" in the classroom.
Knowles describes "self-directed learning" to be, "a process in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating pilot projekt u 2022.
hypertension learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes". Essentially, Malcolm Knowless definition is In its broadest meaning, self-directed learning describes a process by which individuals take the initiative, with our without the assistance of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identify human and material resources for learning, choosing and implement appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes Knowles,p.
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Two principles are remarkable here: 1 the initiative to pursue a learning experience, and 2 the responsibility for completing their learning. However, self-direction does not mean that the learner learns alone or in isolation.
That is, the learner is driving the total learning experience, beginning with recognizing a need to learn. In fact, approximately 70 percent of adult learning is self-directed Cross, and about 90 percent of all adults conduct at least one self-directed learning project a year Tough, Self-directed learning is a process in which individuals take the initiative, without the help of others in planning, carrying out, and evaluating their own learning experiences Knowles, In short, self-directed learning is an informal process that primarily takes place outside the classroom.
What makes it self-directed is the learner that makes decisions about content, methods, resources, and evaluation of the learning, and thus, the learner takes responsibility for his or her own learning process by determining the needs, setting goals, identifying resources, implementing a plan to meet the goals, and evaluating the outcomes M. Knowles, Transformative learning The Transformational Learning Theory, developed by Jack Mezirow, is described as being constructivist, an orientation which holds that the way learners interpret and reinterpret their sense experience is, central to making meaning and hence learning Mezirow, The study of transformational learning emerged with the work of Jack Mezirow, Transformational learning is defined as learning that induces more far-reaching change in the learner than other kinds of learning, especially learning experiences which shape the learner and produce a significant impact, or paradigm shift, which affects the learner's subsequent experiences Clark, Mezirow emphasizes that transformative learning is rooted in the way human beings communicate, and does not link it exclusively with significant life events of the learner.
The theory has two ways of learning: instrumental and communicative pilot projekt u 2022. hypertension.
While instrumental learning focuses on learning through task-oriented problem solving and determination of cause and effect relationships, communicative learning involves how individuals communicate their feelings, needs and desires. Critical reflection is the main tool to form meaning. Reflection is similar to problem solving and Mezirow talks about how we reflect on the content of the problem, the process of problem-solving, or the premise of the problem Mezirow, We are able to understand ourselves more and then understand our learning better through this reflection.
Transformative learning is often described as learning that changes the way individuals think about themselves and their world, and that involves a shift of consciousness. For this, there are four ways: by refining or elaborating our meaning schemes, learning new meaning schemes, transforming meaning schemes, and transforming meaning perspectives Mezirow, To Mezirowtransformational learning is a rational process based on often experiencing a shift in their frame of reference or world view.
Ciufreda, Dr S. Delegacija iz Torina imala je dvodnevni stručni seminar za medicinsko osoblje iz kantona a u okviru dva projekta čija je realizacija otpočela krajem U subotu Petkovićem definisali modalitete saradnje Univerziteta iz Torina i Politehničkog univerziteta iz Torina kroz razvijenu saradnju koja postoji između dvije regije.
Individuals need to challenge each others assumptions and encourage group members to consider various perspectives as well as being free from bias, and meeting in an environment of acceptance, empathy, and trust Mezirow, Two and a half learning In experiential learning theory, the stress is on learning based on experience as a central point in human learning and development. That is, the process of learning from experience is present in human activity everywhere all the time and it operates at all levels of human society from the individual to the group, organizations and to society as a whole.
The process starts with having a concrete experience followed by observation of and reflection on that experience. In adult learning, the main argument is that teaching and learning is a fundamentally different process with adults than it is with children.
Svjetski dan hipertenzije
Adult learning is analyzed with reference to andragogy, self-directed learning, and transformational learning. In these learning processes mentioned here the role of experience, problem solving ability, the critical thinking, the psychology of andragogy, self-directedness and transformation in the world view and values are the main points. The two and a half model is distinct from these points. This learning is based on the experience but it does not come in the normal flow.
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In my case, it started with a whisper campaign started by three colleagues at the same department. As one of them is much shorter, I called this way of learning two and a half model of learning with another reference to the famous TV serial Two and a Half Men.
As it is the nature of a whisper campaign, it had the process and stages of targeting, gossip, slander and complaining. Targeting Stage: The first stage is to find a target that is expected to be a risk factor or a promising person in the field. The possible target is another promising academician that has the potential to quake the present state and lead to a novel and improved change.
When the present state is just as they pilot projekt u 2022. hypertension for their own interest, it must be kept and maintained for personal reasons. In brusnice hipertenzija case, I was an academician for over 20 years at university and it was just at the time when I got my academic promotion as associate professor with the approval of the jury of professors, and it meant that I was about to apply to my university for the university position.
The members of the whisper campaign were now at a lower level and I had the potential to wake the sleeping lion. There could be other reasons against the personal interests of them since I was determined as the rival and target.
Rumor and gossip stage: Although there should be difference between rumor and gossip, as each appears to function differently in its pure state, in the theory, both will be taken as the components of this stage. Peterson and Gist found a great deal of snowballing or creative elaboration, rather than leveling or sharpening in the circulation of rumors.
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Allport and Postman first identified three characteristics of rumor as they travel. First, rumors are leveled: this is the tendency of the rumor to become shorter and simpler.
Second, they are sharpened: some details drop away and others are retained, and the total quantity of detail is reduced. Finally, the rumors are assimilated: new hearers, if motivated to re-share it, will make small changes, and sometimes big ones, that are consistent with their own interests and assumptions.
In my case, in this stage, one of the colleagues formed a compilation of the words and acts that can be transformed into slanders.